Three Kingdoms History: Biographies

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Kongming’s Archives – Romance of the Three Kingdoms Biographies

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Many biographies have been translated or authored for the Three Kingdoms officers discussed on this site, and you can find them using this page. Contents include: Sanguozhi biographies (translations from the historical record by Chen Shou), Sanguo yanyi biographies (Romance of the Three Kingdoms biographies), Comprehensive Officer Biographies (based on multiple historical and cultural sources), Officer Life Chronologies), and links to biographies on other sites.

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Popular Officers

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Cai Yan (Wenji); Lived AD 177–250
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Cao (Mengde); Lived AD 155–220
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive JW   Chronology ME
Sanguozhi AL   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Pi (Zihuan); Lived AD 187–226
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Ren (Zixiao); Lived AD 168–223
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Da Qiao; Lifespan Unknown
Elder of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Xiao Qiao. Married to Sun Ce.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JP   Comprehensive   
Deng Ai (Shizai); Lived AD C. 197–264
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Dian Wei; Lived AD 160–197
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi DL   Comprehensive JW
Diaochan [Sable Cicada]; Lived AD C. 173/6–?
Wang Yun’s adopted daughter. Helped to kill Dong Zhuo. Fictional.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Ding Feng (Chengyuan); Lived AD ?–271
Famous Wu officer, assassinated Sun Chen with Zhang Bu. Defeated Wei at Dongxing.
Sanguozhi HX   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Dong Zhuo (Zhongying); Lived AD ?–192
Siezed control of Luoyang and the Han government before being killed by Lü Bu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Gan Ning (Xingba); Lived AD 175–C. 219
Known to be brave and strong. Served Huang Zu, then Wu. Died of illness.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi DL   Comprehensive JW
Guan Ping; Lived AD 178–219
Served Shu. Guan Yu’s son (adopted in novel). Executed with Guan Yu by Sun Quan.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Guan Xing (Anguo); Lived AD 193–2?
Son of Guan Yu. Served in Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Guan Yu (Yunchang); Lived AD 160–219
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.
Sanguozhi SO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (Reference)
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Guo Huai (Boji); Lived AD 187–255
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Guo Jia (Fengxiao); Lived AD 170–207
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
Sanguozhi WF   Sanguo yanyi DL   Comprehensive JW
Huang Gai (Gongfu); Lived AD C. 145–C. 208
Veteran general in Wu. Came up with the “Bitter Meat Plan” for Chibi.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Huang Zhong (Hansheng); Lived AD ?–220
Joined Liu Bei after Han Xuan’s defeat. One of the Five Tiger Generals.
Sanguozhi SO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Jia Xu (Wenhe); Lived AD 147–223
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Jiang Wei (Boyue); Lived AD 202–264
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
King Meng Huo; Lifespan Unknown
Ruled Nanman after Shamoke’s death. Captured and released seven times by Kongming.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Lady Sun [Sun Shangxiang]; Lived AD C. 189–?
Sun Quan’s sister. Married to Liu Bei by Sun Quan, but later returned to Wu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JZ
Lady Zhurong; Lifespan Unknown
Wife of King Meng Huo. Said to be descended from the Goddess of Fire.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Li Dian (Mancheng); Lived AD C. 181–C. 217
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Ling Tong (Gongji); Lived AD 189–217
Served Wu. Resented Gan Ning for killing his father, Ling Cao, but later forgave him.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Liu Bei (Xuande); Lived AD 161–223
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Liu Shan (Gongsi); Lived AD 207–271
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   Chronology ME   External (SGZ)
Lü Bu (Fengxian); Lived AD ?–198
Said to be the finest warrior of the Three Kingdoms era. Executed by Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi CO   Sanguo yanyi JW   Comprehensive JW
Lü Meng (Ziming); Lived AD 178–220
Served Wu. Originally a skilled warrior, turned out to be a scholar as well.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Lu Su (Zijing); Lived AD 172–217
Brilliant and insightful Wu commander. Was ambassador to Shu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Lu Xun (Boyan); Lived AD 183–245
Famous and brilliant Wu commander that defeated Liu Bei at Yiling.
Sanguozhi CO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Ma Chao (Mengqi); Lived AD 176–222
Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
Sanguozhi SO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive SS
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Ma Dai; Lifespan Unknown
Ma Chao’s cousin. He surrendered to Liu Bei with Ma Chao.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Pang De (Lingming); Lived AD ?–219
Served Ma Chao, Zhang Lu, then Cao Cao. Fought against Guan Yu at Fancheng.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Pang Tong (Shiyuan); Lived AD 179–213
Friend of Sima Hui’s and Shu’s “Fledgling Phoenix.” Killed by an arrow at Luocheng.
Sanguozhi SM   Sanguo yanyi SS   Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Sima Yi (Zhongda); Lived AD 179–251
A skilled advisor of the Wei kingdom. His efforts laid the foundation of Jin.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Sun Ce (Bofu); Lived AD 175–200
Sun Jian’s oldest son. Built the foundation of the Wu kingdom.
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive JW
Sun Jian (Wentai); Lived AD 155–192
Father of Sun Ce, Sun Quan, and the kingdom of Wu.
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive JW
Sun Quan (Zhongmou); Lived AD 182–252
Sun Jian’s second son. Sun Ce’s brother. Long-lived first Emperor of Wu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Taishi Ci (Ziyi); Lived AD 166–206
Served Liu Yao, then Wu. Helped save Kong Rong from the Yellow Scarves.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi DL   Comprehensive JW
Wei Yan (Wenchang); Lived AD ?–234
Talented commander. Killed Han Xuan and surrendered his territory to Liu Bei.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi WM   Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Xiahou Ba (Zhongquan); Lived AD C. 185–C. 258
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Xiahou Dun (Yuanrang); Lived AD ?–220
One of Cao Cao’s original officers, with civil and military talent. Lost an eye in battle.
Sanguozhi HM   Sanguo yanyi QH   Comprehensive   
Xiahou Yuan (Miaocai); Lived AD ?–219
Xiahou Dun’s brother. Famed for his attacks against the western barbarians.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Xiao Qiao; Lifespan Unknown
Younger of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Da Qiao. Married to Zhou Yu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JP   Comprehensive   
Xu Chu (Zhongkang); Lived AD 170–2?
One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards and a commander. Leader of the Tiger Guard.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Xu Huang (Gongming); Lived AD 169–227
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Yuan Shao (Benchu); Lived AD C. 142–202
Childhood friend, and later enemy of, Cao Cao. Defeated at Guandu.
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JP   External (Reference)
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Yue Jin (Wenqian); Lived AD ?–218
Served Cao Cao from the beginning. Shot from his horse by Gan Ning. Small-framed.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Zhang Fei (Yide); Lived AD C. 167–221
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Guan Yu. Second of the Five Tiger Generals.
Sanguozhi SO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Zhang He (Junyi); Lived AD ?–231
Originally under Yuan Shao, defected to Wei. Died battling Zhuge Liang.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Zhang Jue; Lived AD 140–184
Founder of the Yellow Scarves. Self-titled ‘Lord of Heaven’.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JW   Comprehensive   
Zhang Liao (Wenyuan); Lived AD 165–222
Served in Wei after Cao Cao defeated Lü Bu. Close friend of Guan Yu.
Sanguozhi JW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Zhao Yun (Zilong); Lived AD C. 168–229
Served Shu. Highly trusted by Liu Bei. Fourth of the Five Tiger Generals.
Sanguozhi SO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Zhou Tai (Youping); Lived AD 163–225
Wu officer who Saved Sun Quan’s life, and was loved dearly in return.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi SS   Comprehensive JW
Zhou Yu (Gongjin); Lived AD 175–210
Skilled war commander of Wu. Commanded Wu forces at the Battle of Chibi.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Zhuge Dan (Gongxiu); Lived AD ?–258
Zhuge Liang’s cousin. Tried to rebel against Sima Zhao, but was executed.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SS   Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Zhuge Liang (Kongming); Lived AD 181–234
Mastermind of Shu’s rise as a great power. Also known as ‘Sleeping Dragon’.
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   Chronology BR
Zuo Ci (Yuanfang); Lived AD ?–306
Taoist named ‘Master Black Horn’. Trained in the occult at Emei Mountain.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JP   Comprehensive   

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January 20, 2023